In a well-known series of decisions handed down over the past five years, the Supreme Court has firmly yoked its interpretation of the Confrontation Clause to Anglo-American common-law principles that were in place at the time of the Sixth Amendment’s ratification in 1791. Based on its understanding of those principles, the Court has held that an unavailable witness’s testimonial hearsay statements are inadmissible in a criminal case unless the defendant was given an opportunity to cross-examine the witness prior to trial. Despite all of the attention that the Court’s reappraisal of the Confrontation Clause has drawn, the most startling consequence of that reappraisal has almost entirely escaped notice. This Article contends that, under the common-law principles that the Confrontation Clause now incorporates, defendants are not entitled to an attorney’s assistance when interrogating adverse witnesses prior to trial. Warren Court precedent, holding counsel’s pretrial participation essential, is thus poised to join the ranks of other cases that have been pushed aside under the Court’s new reading of the Confrontation Clause. In certain circumstances, the Assistance of Counsel Clause and the Due Process Clauses will pick up the slack, guaranteeing defendants an attorney’s help when cross-examining witnesses prior to trial. In other instances, however, the Constitution today leaves unrepresented defendants responsible for cross-examining witnesses on their own.
DAN’S [F]LAW: STATUTORY FAILURE TO ENFORCE ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN CLINICAL DRUG TRIALS Noah Lewellen* I. INTRODUCTION Paul, a sophomore at the University of Minnesota, bursts into a lecture hall, loudly claims to see monsters sitting in the seats, and offers his services in slaying them. The police are called, and [...]
Case Comment: Bhogaita v. Altamonte
EVERY DOG CAN HAVE HIS DAY IN COURT: THE USE OF ANIMALS AS DEMONSTRATIVE EXHIBITS Kyle R. Kroll, Volume 100, Online Managing Editor In Bhogaita v. Altamonte, the Eleventh Circuit recently decided whether to allow a dog in the courtroom as a demonstrative exhibit. Although the case presented many serious [...]
Revisiting Water Bankruptcy
REVISITING WATER BANKRUPTCY IN CALIFORNIA’S FOURTH YEAR OF DROUGHT Olivia Moe, Volume 100, Managing Editor This spring, as “extreme” to “exceptional” drought stretched across most of California—indicating that a four-year streak of drought was not about to resolve itself—Governor Jerry Brown issued an unprecedented order to reduce potable urban water [...]