After fifty years of clarity and continuity, pleading standards are now the subject of confusion and debate. In 2007, the Supreme Court, in Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, replaced Conley v. Gibson’s “no set of facts” standard with the plausibility standard, under which a complaint must contain enough factual allegations to state a claim that is plausible on its face. Two years later, Ashcroft v. Iqbal confirmed that the plausibility standard is a trans-substantive pleading standard applicable to all claims brought in federal court, but did little to clarify the meaning of “plausibility.” As a result, plaintiffs must meet and courts must apply a vague and indeterminate standard that has generated a variety of conflicting interpretations. Moreover, because both Iqbal and Twombly have language suggesting that the plausibility standard significantly raised the pleading bar, there is a risk that courts will read the opinions as imposing a stringent merits determination at the pleading stage, thereby unsettling years of pleading jurisprudence that has not been repudiated. Rather than embrace the most extreme aspects and language of these opinions, this Note seeks to develop a definition of “plausibility” that explains the results of Iqbal and Twombly, preserves the basic tenets of simplified pleading, and brings clarity to the keystone of the federal procedural system. It first undertakes a comprehensive survey of the post-Twombly definitions of “plausibility.” Although these definitions provide useful guidance in defining “plausibility,” standing alone they are incomplete. It then argues that plausibility is best understood as a minimal standard independent of notice and requiring only that a complaint support the reasonable inference that the plaintiff has a viable claim.
DAN’S [F]LAW: STATUTORY FAILURE TO ENFORCE ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN CLINICAL DRUG TRIALS Noah Lewellen* I. INTRODUCTION Paul, a sophomore at the University of Minnesota, bursts into a lecture hall, loudly claims to see monsters sitting in the seats, and offers his services in slaying them. The police are called, and Paul is restrained and delivered […]
Case Comment: Bhogaita v. Altamonte
EVERY DOG CAN HAVE HIS DAY IN COURT: THE USE OF ANIMALS AS DEMONSTRATIVE EXHIBITS Kyle R. Kroll, Volume 100, Online Managing Editor In Bhogaita v. Altamonte, the Eleventh Circuit recently decided whether to allow a dog in the courtroom as a demonstrative exhibit. Although the case presented many serious issues regarding the Fair Housing […]
Revisiting Water Bankruptcy
REVISITING WATER BANKRUPTCY IN CALIFORNIA’S FOURTH YEAR OF DROUGHT Olivia Moe, Volume 100, Managing Editor This spring, as “extreme” to “exceptional” drought stretched across most of California—indicating that a four-year streak of drought was not about to resolve itself—Governor Jerry Brown issued an unprecedented order to reduce potable urban water usage by twenty-five percent. In […]